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International Construction Contract Law
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International Construction Contract Law

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Overview
Published Jan 2015 (Wiley-Blackwell)
ISBN: 9781118717905. Hard Cover, 560 pages.
Description

Lukas Klee

Large international construction projects often have a range of major contractors, subcontractors and consultants based in different parts of the world and working to different legal theories and understandings. This can lead to confusion in the understanding, interpretation and execution of the construction contract, which can result in significant disruption to the construction project.

International Construction Contract Law is written for anyone who needs to understand the legal and managerial aspects of large international construction projects, including consulting engineers, lawyers, clients, developers, contractors and construction managers worldwide. In 18 chapters it provides a thorough overview of civil law /common law interrelationships, delivery methods, standard forms of contract, risk allocation, variations, claims and dispute resolution, all in the context of international construction projects. Highly practical in approach – it introduces legal analysis only when absolutely essential to understanding, the book also contains a range of useful appendices, including a 10-language basic dictionary of terms used in FIDIC forms.

About the Author xv

Foreword xvii

Svend Poulsen

Acknowledgements xix

Introductory Remarks xxi
Shuibo Zhang

Introductory Remarks xxiii
RobertWerth

Introductory Remarks xxv
Ilya Nikiforov

1 International Construction Projects 1

1.1 The unique nature of the construction industry 1

1.2 Individuality of construction projects 1

1.3 Roles and relationships 2

1.4 Contract administration:The Engineer 4

1.5 Further important aspects of construction projects 10

1.6 Typical contractual relationships 11

1.7 Motivation for international business 11

1.8 Managerial analyses 13

1.9 Hazards and risks 14

1.10 Hazard identification 15

1.11 Risk analysis 15

1.12 Anti-risk measures 16

1.13 Typical hazards in the international construction business 17

1.14 Risk allocation in contracts 18

Vignette:Wrong forms of contract by James Bremen (UK) 18

1.15 Form of business organization 19

References 22

Further reading 23

2 Civil Law and Common Law 24

2.1 Specifics of the governing law 24

2.2 Common law versus civil law:Differences and interconnections 24

Vignette:The common law of Australia and the influence of statutory law by Donald Charrett (Australia) 26

2.3 Delay damages (liquidated damages) versus contractual penalty 28

2.4 Substantial completion versus performance 29

2.5 Binding nature of adjudication awards 31

2.6 Limitation of liability 31

2.7 Lapse of claim due to its late notification (time bars) 32

2.8 Allocation of unforeseeable and uncontrollable risk to the contractor 32

2.9 Contract administration (The Engineer’s neutrality and duty to certify) 42

2.10 Termination in convenience 43

Vignette: Is an employer in breach of contract prevented from terminating the contract for its convenience? by Cecilia Misu (Germany) 44

2.11 Time-related issues 45

2.12 Quantification of claims 46

2.13 Statutory defects liability 47

2.14 Performance responsibility: reasonable skill and care versus fitness for purpose 47

2.15 Common law, civil law and Sharia interconnections 48

References 49

Further reading 49

Website 50

3 CommonDeliveryMethods 51

3.1 Common delivery methods: Main features 51

3.2 General contracting 53

3.3 Design-build 54

3.4 Construction management 58

3.5 Multiple-prime contracts 60

3.6 Partnering 60

3.7 Alliancing 61

3.8 Extended delivery methods (PPP, BOT, DBO) 62

3.9 Further aspects of delivery methods 62

References 65

Further reading 65

4 Specifics of EPC and EPCM 66

4.1 EPC and EPCM 66

4.2 Engineer procure construct (EPC) 66

4.3 Bespoke EPC contracts 69

4.4 Turnkey EPC contracts 70

Vignette:Water treatment, wind farm and road construction projects in Asian and African countries by Stéphane Giraud (France) 71

4.5 Front end engineering design 72

Vignette: Key issues in the procurement of international hydropower construction contracts by Alex Blomfield (UK) 73

4.6 Engineer procure construction management (EPCM) 77

Vignette: The use of the EPCMdelivery method in the mining industry by Mark Berry (UK) and Matthew Hardwick (UK) 79

4.7 EPC versus EPCM 85

Reference 86

Further reading 87

5 Unification and Standardization in International Construction 88

5.1 Unification of contracts 88

5.2 Unification per law, principles and sample documents 88

5.3 Lenders and their influence on unification 90

5.4 Standard form of contract in a governing law context 92

5.5 Purpose of sample documents in construction projects 93

5.6 Standard sample forms as a source of law 94

5.7 Lex causae 95

5.8 Interpretation 96

5.9 Trade usage and business custom 97

Vignette: A common law of construction contracts – or vive la différence? by Donald Charrett (Australia) 98

5.10 Lex constructionis principles 100

5.11 The use of lex constructionis 102

Vignette: Future-proofing construction contracts by Shy Jackson (UK) 102

References 105

Further reading 105

Websites 105

6 Price 106

6.1 Contract price 106

6.2 Bid pricing methods 107

6.3 Methods of contract price determination 109

6.4 Re-measurement 109

6.5 The lump sum 112

6.6 Cost plus 112

6.7 Guaranteed maximum price 113

6.8 Target price 113

6.9 Payment 114

Vignette: Taxation in international construction contracts by Alex Blomfield (UK) 115

6.10 Contract price under FIDIC forms 117

6.11 Cost overruns 119

6.12 Abnormally low tender (ALT) 120

6.13 Claims as part of contract price 121

6.14 Public procurement law limitations 122

Vignette: A concept of variation in a construction contract under Polish public procurement by Micha³ Skorupski (Poland) 123

References 126

Further reading 126

Websites 127

7 Time 128

7.1 Time in construction 128

7.2 Delay 128

7.3 The United Kingdom Society of Construction Law Delay and Disruption Protocol 130

7.4 Time programme 131

7.5 Ownership of floats 133

Vignette: Time extension and float ownership under the FIDIC Red and Yellow Books (1999 editions) (BAMCO FDTEA final argument) by Frank Thomas (France) 133

7.6 Time at large and Extension of Time (EOT) 146

7.7 Concurrent delay 148

Vignette: Delay clauses in different jurisdictions by Jacob C. Jørgensen (Denmark) 149

7.8 Disruption 150

7.9 Time for completion under FIDIC forms 151

7.10 Time programme under FIDIC forms 152

Vignette: A lack of realism in negotiations by James Bremen (UK) 154

7.11 Delay and suspension under FIDIC forms 154

7.12 Contract termination under FIDIC forms 158

References 160

Further reading 160

8 Variations 161

8.1 Variation clauses 161

8.2 Variations under FIDIC forms 163

8.3 Claims related to variations 164

8.4 Acceleration 166

Vignette:The US approach to constructive acceleration by Robert A. Rubin and Sarah Biser (the USA) 170

8.5 Proving the acceleration claim 173

8.6 Substantial change 174

Vignette: Modification of contracts during their execution under EU law by Odysseas P. Michaelides (Cyprus) 176

References 180

Further reading 180

Websites 180

9 Claims 181

9.1 Claims 181

Vignette: Claims caused by deficiencies in tender documents by James Bremen (UK) 184

9.2 Contractor’s claims under FIDIC forms 185

9.3 Employer’s claims under FIDIC forms 186

Vignette: Claims in the St Petersburg flood protection barrier construction by Aleksei Kuzmin (Russia) 186

9.4 Lapse of claim 189

9.5 Cause of the claim 191

9.6 Limits of the lapse of claim 191

Vignette: Construction claims in the UK by Garry Kitt (UK) 193

Vignette: Condition precedent and time-barred claims under Polish Law by Micha³ Skorupski (Poland) 196

Vignette: Australian position on time bars by Andrew P. Downie (Australia) 197

References 204

Further reading 204

10 ClaimManagement 205

10.1 Claim management 205

10.2 Claims for Extension of Time (EOT) 206

10.3 Claims for additional payment 208

10.4 Claims resulting from delay and/or disruption under the provisions of the contract 209

Vignette: Considerations related to site overhead claims by Gary Kitt (UK) 210

10.5 Claims resulting from governing law 220

10.6 Global claims 220

Vignette: All global claims are not negatively ‘global’! by Frank Thomas (France) 223

10.7 Contractor’s claim management under FIDIC forms 224

10.8 Employer’s claim management under FIDIC forms 227

10.9 Intercultural aspects 228

Vignette: Cultural considerations in Southeast Asia by Salvador P. Castro, Jr. (The Philippines) 228

Vignette: ‘Claim’ as perceived in the Polish civil law environment by Micha³ Skorupski (Poland) 230

10.10 Claim management implementation 231

Vignette: Claims in a tunnel construction in the Republic of Serbia by RadimWrana (the Czech Republic) 232

References 234

Further reading 234

11 Construction Dispute Boards 235

11.1 Construction disputes 235

Vignette: Construction dispute in sheet metal galvanizing line project by Patrick Kain (South Africa) 235

11.2 Dispute boards 237

Vignette: Project dispute avoidance by Christopher J. Mather (the USA) 238

Vignette:The use of dispute boards in the Middle East and North Africa by Andy Hewitt (United Arab Emirates) 245

11.3 Contractual adjudication: The use of DAB in FIDIC forms 246

11.4 Enforcement of dispute board decisions 249

11.5 Statutory adjudication 254

Vignette: Statutory adjudication by Nigel Grout (UK) 254

Vignette: Settling construction disputes in Hungary by Tamás Balázs (Hungary) 256

Vignette: Statutory adjudication in Australia by Donald Charrett and Andrew Downie (Australia) 258

References 264

Further reading 265

12 FIDIC 266

12.1 FIDIC expansion 266

12.2 FIDIC 266

12.3 FIDIC’s influence on the construction industry 267

12.4 FIDIC membership 267

12.5 Networking activities 268

Vignette: The use of FIDIC forms in Southeast Asia by Salvador P. Castro, Jr. (The Philippines) 270

Vignette:The use of FIDIC forms in Russia by Dmitry Nekrestyanov (Russia) 271

Vignette:The use of FIDIC forms in Brazil by Rafael Marinangelo (Brazil) 272

12.6 FIDIC forms of contract 272

12.7 The structure of the contract under FIDIC forms 274

12.8 Conditions of Contract for Construction (CONS) – 1999 Red Book 277

Vignette: Misapplications of FIDIC contracts in the United Arab Emirates by Kamal Adnan Malas (United Arab Emirates) 278

12.9 Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design-Build (P&DB) – 1999 Yellow Book 283

12.10 Conditions of Contract for EPC/Turnkey Projects (EPC) – 1999 Silver Book 284

12.11 Short Form of Contract – Green Book 285

12.12 Construction Subcontract 285

12.13 Conditions of Contract for Design, Build and Operate (DBO) – Gold Book 286

12.14 Other FIDIC standard forms 289

Vignette: Use of FIDIC contracts by the mining industry in Africa by Coenraad Snyman (South Africa) 289

12.15 Risk allocation under FIDIC forms 291

Vignette: China’s Standard form of construction contract in comparison with FIDIC forms by Shuibo Zhang (China) 294

Vignette: Explanation of FIDIC EPC risk allocation by FIDIC 299

12.16 Design responsibility under FIDIC forms 301

References 303

Further reading 303

13 Other Standard Forms of Construction Contracts: NEC, ICC, ENNA, IChemE, Orgalime, AIA, VOB 305

13.1 Common standard forms of construction contracts 305

13.2 The NEC (New Engineering Contract) 305

13.3 FIDIC forms versus NEC3 310

13.4 ICC forms of contract 313

13.5 ENAA forms of contract 314

13.6 IChemE forms of contract 314

13.7 Orgalime forms of contract 315

13.8 AIA forms of contract: US standard 316

13.9 VOB: German standard 318

13.10 Invalid clauses in German case law 324

Vignette:The standard forms of construction contract in Australia by John Sharkey (Australia) 325

References 328

Further reading 328

Websites 329

14 Risk and Insurance 330

14.1 Insurance in construction 330

14.2 Commercial risk, risk of damage and exceptional risk 331

Vignette:Weather risk in offshore wind construction contracts by Alex Blomfield (UK) 334

14.3 Risk management in the standard forms of contract 337

14.4 Hazards and risks in construction projects 339

14.5 Insurance requirements in standard forms of contract 342

Vignette: Insurance in hydroenergy projects by Alex Blomfield (UK) 345

14.6 Practical aspects of insurance in construction projects 346

Vignette: Incompatibility of the construction contract with the insurance contract by Karel Fabich (the Czech Republic) 348

14.7 International insurance law and insurance standards in the construction industry 349

References 352

Further reading 352

Website 353

15 Risk in Underground Construction 354

15.1 Underground construction hazards and risks 354

15.2 Code of practice for risk management of tunnel works 355

15.3 Alternatives of unforeseeable physical conditions risk allocation 356

15.4 Unforeseeability 357

15.5 ‘Unforeseeability’ according to FIDIC forms 358

15.6 Site data 359

Vignette:Water-related construction projects by RobertWerth (Germany) 361

15.7 Sufficiency of the accepted contract amount 364

15.8 Unforeseeable physical conditions 364

15.9 Unforeseeable operation of the forces of nature 366

Vignette: Clairvoyance: A contractor’s duty? by Gustavo Paredes and KatherineWaidhofer (Peru) 366

15.10 Force majeure 369

15.11 Release from performance under law 370

References 370

Further reading 370

Website 371

16 Securities 372

16.1 Securities in construction 372

16.2 Bank guarantees 373

16.3 Functions and parameters of bank guarantees 373

16.4 Specifics of Retention Guarantee 375

Vignette: Performance security and termination payment security in hydroenergy projects by Alex Blomfield (UK) 377

16.5 Governing law 378

Vignette: Common law specifics related to securities by Rupert Choat and Aidan Steensma (UK) 379

16.6 ICC rules related to securities 381

16.7 Suretyship 381

16.8 Stand-by letter of credit 382

16.9 Securities under FIDIC forms 383

Further reading 384

17 Civil EngineeringWorks: Infrastructure Construction Projects 386

17.1 Investments in developing countries 386

17.2 The approach to the risk allocation in the United States 387

17.3 The approach to the risk allocation in the United Kingdom 389

Vignette: Construction of airports by Patrick Kain (South Africa) 390

17.4 The approach to the risk allocation in Central and Eastern Europe 392

Vignette:The Romanian experience by Claudia Teodorescu (Romania) 395

17.5 The Polish experience 399

Vignette: FIDIC forms and contractual relationships in Poland by Aleksandra Marzec (Poland) 399

Vignette: Market environment prior to and after 2008 by Micha³ Skorupski (Poland) 402

Vignette: Claims considerations by Aleksandra Marzec (Poland) 408

Vignette: Contractor defence measures by Micha³ Skorupski (Poland) 412

17.6 The Czech experience 415

Vignette: Local limits for development: An interview with Shy Jackson (UK) by Lukas Klee (the Czech Republic) 416

References 421

Further reading 421

Websites 422

18 Building Construction: Health Care Facilities 423

18.1 Health care facility construction project 423

18.2 Pre-design planning phase 423

18.3 Design phase 424

18.4 Basic structure of a hospital 425

18.5 Efficiency and cost effectiveness 425

18.6 Flexibility and expandability 426

18.7 Therapeutic environment 426

18.8 Cleaning and maintenance 426

18.9 Controlled circulation and accessibility 427

18.10 Aesthetics 427

18.11 Health and safety 428

18.12 Use of information technology 428

18.13 Relevant regulations and standards 428

18.14 Health care facility construction project: Suitable delivery method 429

Further reading 431

Appendix A: Interactive Exercises 433

A.1 Interactive exercise 1: Delivery method selection 433

A.2 Interactive exercise 2: Claim for delayed site handover 434

A.3 Interactive exercise 3: Claim due to suspension of work 436

A.4 Interactive exercise 4: Subcontractor claim for contractor delay (lack of cooperation, inadequate on-site coordination and improper, unclear and delayed instructions) 437

Appendix B: Sample Letters 441

B.1 Contractor’s sample letters: Notice of probable future event 442

B.2 Contractor’s sample letters: Notice of contractor’s claims 443

B.3 Contractor’s sample letters: Contractor’s claim No. submission (quantification) 445

B.4 Contractor’s sample letters: Request for evidences of financial arrangements 446

B.5 Contractor’s sample letters:Written confirmation of oral instruction 447

B.6 Contractor’s sample letters: Notice of dissatisfaction with a determination of the engineer 448

B.7 Contractor’s sample letters: Notice of contractor’s entitlement to suspend work 449

B.8 Contractor’s sample letters: Notice of contractor’s claim under the Sub-Clause 16.1 450

B.9 Contractor’s sample letters: Application for taking-over certificate 451

B.10 Employer’s sample letters: Notice of employer’s claim 452

B.11 Employer’s sample letters: Answer to request for evidence of financial arrangements 453

B.12 Engineer’s sample letters: Engineer’s determination 454

B.13 Engineer’s sample letters: Engineer’s instruction 456

B.14 Engineer’s sample letters: Engineer’s notice to correct 457

B.15 Engineer’s sample letters: Engineer’s instruction to remove a person employed on the site 458

B.16 Engineer’s sample letters: Engineer’s instruction – lack of mobilisation 459

Appendix C: Dictionary of Construction Terms: Chinese, Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish 461

C.1 Dictionary – General part 462

C.2 Dictionary – Contractor’s claims 470

C.3 Dictionary – Employer’s claims 474

Appendix D: ClaimManagement System under FIDIC Forms 478

D.1 Claim Management Team Responsibilities 478

D.2 Claim Management Processes 481

D.3 Table of Contractor’s claims under FIDIC CONS 482

D.4 Table of Employer’s claims under FIDIC CONS 482

Appendix E: FIDIC Forms Risk Allocation Charts 484

E.1 Chart No.1: Basic risk allocation alternatives in connection with unforeseeable physical conditions 484

E.2 Chart No. 2: Basic comparison of risk allocation (claims options) in FIDIC CONS/1999 Red Book, P&DB/1999 Yellow Book and EPC/1999 Silver Book 484

Appendix F: Engineer’s DeterminationWithin the Ambit of the 1999 Edition of the FIDICContract Forms: A Case Study of Contractor’s Claims in Respect of Sand and Gravel Borrow Areas 487
by Khalil T. Hasan

F.1 Preface 490

F.2 Introduction 490

F.3 Contractual provisions for a claim 491

F.4 Compliance with the contractual provisions 492

F.5 Consultations with the employer and the contractor 493

F.6 Contractor’s original intent 507

F.7 Stage 2 – Contractor’s tender submission 512

F.8 Conclusion in respect of contractor’s original intent 512

F.9 Post contract award period 513

F.10 Contractor’s reasons for refusal to exploit the river bed borrow areas 516

F.11 Equipment required for exploitation of river bed borrow areas 518

F.12 Engineer’s analysis of the foregoing circumstances and facts 520

F.13 Additional costs and delays 523

F.14 Unjust enrichment of the contractor all at the expense of the employer 525

F.15 Engineer’s determination of S&G borrow area claim notices 526

Index 529

Lukas Klee, JD, LL.M., Ph.D., MBA, is an international construction law expert, adjudicator and currently head of the legal department at Metrostav a.s., a large construction company based in central Europe. For over a decade Lukas has dealt with international construction contracts (FIDIC) on a daily basis and has participated in large construction projects in the Czech Republic and internationally. When away from the office, he lectures on international construction law, at the Charles University Faculty of Law in Prague, the Czech Technical University in Prague and at the University of Warsaw Faculty of Law.

Over the course of his LL.M. studies at Nottingham Trent University and PhD studies at the Charles University Faculty of Law, Lukas focused on FIDIC forms of contracts. His MBA dissertation at Sheffield Hallam University further examined claim management implementation.

Lukas regularly gives lectures for many organizations including FIDIC, provides training, publishes articles worldwide and is the author of several books related to international construction law.

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